Animal impacts: multiple topics
European Food Safety Authority - AHAW Panel. Aspects of the biology and welfare of animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes. EFSA J 2005(Annex); 292: 1-136.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLES, APPENDIXES AND FIGURES 4
ABREVIATIONS 5
DEFINITIONS 6

1. TERMS OF REFERENCE 10
1.1. Background 10
1.2. Mandate 10
1.2.1. Question 1 on the sentience of invertebrate species, and fetal and embryonic forms of both vertebrate and invertebrate species 10
1.2.2. Question 2 on fetal and embryonic forms 11
1.2.3. Question 3 on purpose-bred animals 12
1.2.4. Question 4 on humane methods of euthanasia 13
1.2.5. Supportive Documents 13
1.3. Scope of the Report 13

2. QUESTION ON THE SENTIENCE OF INVERTEBRATE SPECIES, FETAL AND
EMBRYONIC FORMS OF BOTH VERTEBRATE AND INVERTEBRATE
SPECIES AND ON FETAL AND EMBRYONIC FORMS 15
2.1. The questions asked and the risks to be considered 15
2.2. How to decide which animals should be protected 15
2.3. Capabilities of invertebrates in relation to the need for protection 18
2.3.1. Cognitive Capacities of Invertebrates 20
2.3.2. Brain Cell Numbers 26
2.3.3. Nociception and Pain in Invertebrates 27
2.3.4. Evidence against invertebrates having the capacity to experience suffering 32
2.3.5. Summary: 33
2.4. Brief summaries for non-vertebrate groups and recommendations 33
2.4.1. Cyclostomes (lampreys and hagfish) 33
2.4.2. Amphioxus 34
2.4.3. Tunicate 34
2.4.4. Hemichordata such as Balanoglossus 34
2.4.5. Cephalopods (octopods, squid, cuttlefish, nautiloids) 34
2.4.6. Land gastropods 35
2.4.7. Tectibranch and nudibranch molluscs 35
2.4.8. Social insects 35
2.4.9. Other insects 35
2.4.10. Spiders, especially jumping spiders 35
2.4.11. Decapod crustaceans (lobsters, crabs, prawns, etc.) 35
2.4.12. Isopods (woodlice and marine species) 36
2.4.13. Other phyla (e.g. Annelida, Echinodermata, Platyhelminthes, and Nematoda) 36
2.5. Fetal and embryonic animals which might be protected 37
2.5.1. Fetal sentience 37
2.6. Implications for the definition of a “protected animal” 43

3. QUESTION ON PURPOSE-BRED ANIMALS 44
3.1. Introduction 44
3.2. Risk assessment framework 44
3.2.1. Introduction 44
3.2.2. IMPACT ON ANIMAL WELFARE 45
3.2.3. IMPACT ON SCIENTIFIC QUALITY 51
3.3. SCIENTIFIC CRITERIA THAT COULD BE USED TO DETERMINE WHICH
ANIMALS SHOULD BE PURPOSE-BRED 53
3.3.1. Key criteria to be considered for being purpose bred and inclusion in Annex I 54
3.3.2. Assessement in relation to specific species used in research: 55

4. QUESTION ON HUMANE METHODS OF EUTHANASIA 64
4.1. Introduction 64
4.2. Reasons for euthanasia: 65
4.2.1. Scientific reasons: 65
4.3. Education, training and competence of those carrying out humane killing: 65
4.4. Killing animals for their tissues: 66
4.5. The approach, scope and layout in the euthanasia section 66
4.6. Gathering information 67
4.7. Species to be dealt according to the annex sent by DG ENVIR 67
4.8. Methods of euthanasia 67
4.8.1. Electrical stunning 68
4.8.2. Mechanical stunning methods 69
4.8.3. Mechanical disruption of tissues (Neck dislocation, decapitation, maceration) 73
4.8.4. Physical methods 76
4.8.5. Gaseous methods 79
4.9. Humane killing of cephalopods, cyclostomes, decapods (if accepted) 103
4.9.1. Methods inducing the minimum level of pain and distres: 103
4.9.2. Methods likely to cause pain and distress 105
4.10. The following Tables (8-15) give the recommended methods for the humane killing of animals in the laboratory 106
4.11. References 114

5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 136