Alternatives: blood sampling
Morton DB, Abbot D, Barclay R et al. Removal of blood from laboratory mammals and birds. First report of the BVA/FRAME/RSPCA/UFAW Joint Working Group on Refinement. Lab Anim 1993; 27: 1-22.
Journal link

This report is the first in a series on refinement of scientific procedures and laboratory animal husbandry. Its aim is to help those removing blood from animals to do so in the most humane and efficient way so that any pain, distress or discomfort for the animals is kept to a minimum. The report should also be useful in training courses, or as basic reading before applying for a personal or project licence under the UK Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986. The emphasis throughout is on practical detail. It is hoped that publications on refinement of experi- mental procedures such as these will lead to 'best practice becoming common practice in all laboratories.