Alternatives: dosing
Morton DB, Jennings M, Buckwell A et al. Refining procedures for the administration of substances. Report of the BVAAWF/FRAME/RSPCA/UFAW Joint Working Group on Refinement. Lab Anim 2001; 35(1): 1-41.
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The administration of substances is a very broad topic – many different kinds of substance are administered by many different techniques and routes and for a variety of purposes. The methods involved are described in a number of publications (e.g. Paget & Thomson 1979, Kirk & Bistner 1985, Poole 1987, Rollin & Kessel 1990, Waynforth & Flecknell 1992, Tuffery 1995, Wolfensohn & Lloyd 1998) and guidelines on good practice have recently been produced by the Laboratory Animal Science Association (1998). This report is intended to complement the existing literature by identifying potential problems with individual methods and procedures and focusing on how these can be refined to reduce adverse effects and develop best practice. The most commonly used routes in the common laboratory species are covered with notes on additional methods or other species where appropriate. The emphasis is on techniques carried out in biomedical research and testing but some of the principles also have clinical application in veterinary medicine.

T he report should provide useful information for anyone planning or carrying out procedures, or who has to deal with their consequences. General principles of `good practice’ when administering a substance by any route are set out in Section 2, together with recommendations for refinement with regard to the substance administered, equipment and techniques. Section 3 then describes specific refinements within individual routes and techniques. The report concludes with a section addressing special considerations when administering substances to wild animals. The report is based on the published literature where this is available and on the considered expert opinion of the working group and their colleagues.