Alternatives: systemic toxicity
Stoick K, Nitschke K & Sandusky C: Systemic testing by the dermal route can be precluded by new non-animal percutaneous absorption strategies. AATEX 2008; 14(Spl. Issue): 561-4.
Journal link

Recent developments in the estimation and measurement of percutaneous absorption now make it possible to determine, using either in silico or in vitro prediction methods, whether a specific chemical will be absorbed through the skin. For chemicals where the exposure route of concern is primarily dermal, systemic toxicity tests may be avoided by first determining the dermal penetration potential, using these non-animal percutaneous absorption methods. This approach can still protect public and worker health while avoiding resource- and animal-intensive tests such as dermal reproductive or developmental testing. A case study used in the US EPA's High Production Volume Chemical Challenge Program is presented.