Education: overall
Balcombe JP. The Use of Animals in Higher Education: Problems: Alternatives and Recommendations. Washington, DC: Humane Society Press. 2000. [book].
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[An academic publication with 350 citations presenting the evidence in favor of humane alternatives to harmful animal use in biomedical education.]


List of Tables

1. Introduction
1.1 Scope of This Monograph
1.2 Historical Use of Animals in Education

2. The Quality and Integrity of Science Education
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Scientific Literacy in America
2.3 “Hands-on” versus Active Learning
2.4 Conclusion
2.5 Recommendations

3. Sociological Issues
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Student Feelings and Attitudes
Qualitative Studies
3.3 Teacher Influence
3.4 Alienation from Science
3.5 Teaching to Care
3.6 Recommendations

4. Animal Dissection in Education
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Prevalence of Dissection
The United States
4.3 Procurement and Animal Suffering
Frog Supply
PETA’s Investigation of CBSC
Other Investigations
Animal Shelters
Farmed Animals
4.4 Ecological Concerns
4.5 Formaldehyde Exposure
4.6 Defenders of Dissection
Schrock (1990)
Pancoast (1991)
Holden (1990)
Hamm and Blum (1992)
Biological Variation
Other Arguments
4.7 Alternatives to Dissection
Computer-Assisted Learning
Cost of Alternatives
Availability of Alternatives
Ethical Dissection
Outdoor Study of Animals
4.8 Recommendations

5. Live-Animal Use in Education
5.1 Introduction
5.2 The Life Sciences
Precollege Education
5.3 Alternatives to Live-Animal Use
5.4 The Health Sciences
Medical School
Alternatives for Medical School
Clinical Case-based Learning
Other Alternatives
Veterinary School
The Use of Animals in Higher Education
Alternatives for Veterinary Training
Learning in the Clinical Setting
5.5 Science Fairs
5.6 HSUS Recommendations

6. Law and Policy Issues
6.1 Introduction
6.2 The Case for Student Choice
6.3 Legal Challenges
6.4 Current Laws and Policies
6.5 International Policy
6.6 Enforcement Problems
6.7 What Constitutes a Good Policy
6.8 Recommendations

7. Conclusion

8. Summary of Recommendations

Literature Cited


3.1 Published Studies of Attitudes toward Animal Use in Education
4.1 Published Studies Comparing the Performance of Alternatives with Traditional Animal-Based Learning Methods in Life Science Education
4.2 Costs: Dissection Exercises versus Alternatives to Dissection for Commonly Dissected Animals
5.1 Percentage of U.S. Medical Schools with Live-Animal Laboratory Exercises in Various Departments
5.2 Studies Evaluating Alternatives in Veterinary Medical Education
6.1 U.S. State Student Choice-in-Dissection Laws