Contributions to human healthcare
The following studies aim to describe and quantify the contributions of animal studies to human healthcare. Topics explored include: the frequency of translation of putative clinical interventions (such as pharmaceuticals) from animal to human trials, and the level of concordance between animal and human outcomes; the contribution of animal models to the development of clinical interventions targeting important human diseases; their predictivity for important human toxicities; their clinical utility within certain countries; the clinical utility of primates and of genetically modified animals (both of which are particularly ethically controversial); and of animal models overall – particularly as indicated by large-scale systematic reviews.

Translation to human clinical trials

Specific diseases
  • ADHD. Carvalho et al 2016. ALTEX [article]
  • Cancer research. Dagg 2000. J Appl Anim Welf Sci. [article]

Specific countries
  • Canadian studies. Dagg & Seidle 2004, J Appl Anim Welf Sci. [articles]
  • German studies. Lindl et al. 2005, 2006 & 2011, ALTEX. [article, letter & lecture abstract]

Toxicity assessment

  • Overall. Hartung 2008, ALTEX. [article]

Primate models

  • Primates. Bailey 2005, Biogenic Amines. [article]
  • Primates. Knight 2012, AATEX. [article]


  • Overall. Matthews RA 2008, J R Soc Med. [article]
  • Overall. Knight 2007 - 2008, Altern Lab Anim, Reviews Recent Clin Trials & AATEX. [articles & scientific poster]