Impacts on laboratory animals
These studies assess and describe the impacts affecting various species and types of laboratory animals. Some argue that death (if humanely inflicted) does not adversely affect welfare, because a dead animal cannot experience an adverse welfare state. However, death undoubtedly constitutes a profound adverse impact for most animals, and should clearly not be excluded from harm-benefit or other ethical analyses, as sometimes occurs.


  • Chimpanzees. Bradshaw et al. 2008, J Traum Dissoc. [article]
  • Great apes. Brüne et al. 2006, Neurosci Biobehav Rev. [article]


  • Enrichment. Wurbel 2007, ALTEX. [article]
  • Housing. Balcombe 2006, Lab Anim. [article]


  • Canada. Griffin et al. 2008, AATEX. [article]
  • New Zealand. Bayvel et al. 2008, AATEX. [article]

  • Distress. Clark 2008, AATEX. [article]
  • Pain. Carbone 2011, PLoS ONE. [article]
  • Stress. Balcombe et al. 2004, Contemp Topics Lab Anim Sci. [article]
  • Multiple topics. EFSA 2005. [European Food Safety Authority report]